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Gallery I


Gallery I

Gallery II
Including the mummy identified as Queen Hatshepsut.

Gallery III
Including the mummy identified as Queen Tiye.

 Gallery IV
Featuring the controversial KV 55 mummy. Now with a revised reconstruction of ancient events in this perplexing tomb.

Gallery V
Featuring the mummies of Tutankhamen and his children. Still in preparation.


Gallery I 
Now including the
mummy identified as
Ramesses I.


Gallery I


Gallery I

Gallery II

21'st Dynasty Coffins from DB320
  Examine the coffins
of 21'st Dynasty Theban Rulers.

  Unidentified  Mummies

Gallery I
Including the mummy identified as Tutankhamen's mother.

About the Dockets

Inhapi's Tomb

Using this website for research papers


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The Treasures of Yuya and Tuyu
  View the funerary equipment of Queen Tiye's parents.

 Tomb Raiders of KV 46
How thorough were the robbers who plundered the tomb of Yuya and Tuyu? How many times was the tomb robbed, and what were the thieves after? This study of post interment activity in KV 46 provides some answers.

Special KV 55 Section

Follow the trail of the missing treasures from mysterious KV 55.

KV 55's Lost Objects: Where Are They Today?

The KV 55 Coffin Basin and Gold Foil Sheets

KV 55 Gold Foil at the Metropolitan

Mystery of the Missing Mummy Bands

KV 35 Revisited
See rare photographic plates of a great discovery from Daressy's Fouilles de la Vallee des Rois.

Unknown Man E  
Was he really
buried alive?

The Tomb of Maihirpre
Learn about Victor Loret's important discovery of this nearly intact tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

Special Section:
Tomb Robbers!
Who were the real tomb raiders? What beliefs motivated their actions? A new perspective on the ancient practice of tomb robbing.

Special Section:
Spend a Night
with the Royal Mummies

Read Pierre Loti's eerie account of his nocturnal visit to the Egyptian Museum's Hall of Mummies.

Special Section:
An Audience With Amenophis II
Journey once more with Pierre Loti as he explores the shadowy  chambers of KV 35 in the early 1900's.

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Most of the images on this website have been scanned from books, all of which are given explicit credit and, wherever possible, a link to a dealer where they may be purchased. Some images derive from other websites. These websites are also acknowledged in writing and by being given a link, either to the page or file where the images appear, or to the main page of the source website. Images forwarded to me by individuals who do not supply the original image source are credited to the sender. All written material deriving from other sources is explicitly credited to its author. 
Feel free to use  material from the Theban Royal Mummy Project website. No prior written permission is required. Just please follow the same guidelines which I employ when using the works of other researchers, and give the Theban Royal Mummy Project  proper credit on your own papers, articles, or web pages. 

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Background Image:  Wall scene from the tomb of Ramesses II (KV 7.) From Karl Richard Lepsius, Denkmäler (Berlin: 1849-1859.)




XVIII'th Dynasty Gallery I
Learn more about the 18'th Dynasty.

Amosis (c. 1570-1546 B. C.)
Early 18'th Dynasty
: DB 320
Discovery Date: 1881
Current Location: Cairo Museum JE 26210; CG61057

Amosis PL 11.jpg (27258 bytes)Biographical data

Details: The mummy of Amosis, founder of the 18'th Dynasty, had been damaged in antiquity. His head had been broken off and his nose had been broken and pushed in. An examination of the mummy revealed that the brain had been removed through the foramen magnum rather than through the nostrils. The cranial cavity had been packed with linen, and Reeves raises the possibility that this could have been done by the ancient restorers in the 21'st Dynasty rather than by the original embalmers. Ikram and Dodson note that Amosis, in distinction from other ancient Egyptian men, had not been circumcised. The king's arms were not folded over his chest as in other royal male mummies of later periods, but were fully extended with the hands facing inward at the thighs. X-rays revealed that Amosis suffered from arthritis. They also showed the remains of some beads around the king's knees. No other objects were found with Amosis in DB 320, but a shabti of this king is in the British Museum (EA 32191.)
    Amosis was found in what, according to Reeves, was probably the innermost coffin of his original nested coffin set. It had been painted yellow, and may have originally been gilded. Reeves does not mention the presence of adze marks on the coffin, and their apparent absence indicates that the coffin's gilding (if it ever had any) had been carefully removed, perhaps by necropolis officials rather than by thieves. (See photo of coffin from Ian Bolton's Egypt: Land of Eternity site. Bolton, contra Reeves above, states that this was probably not an original coffin of Amosis.)  (Source Bibliography: CCR, 3; DRN, 200, 206, 212, 264, n. 165; EM, 88-90; JEA 17, [1931], 10; MiAE, 321-322; MR, 533 ff.; RM, 15 ff.; XRA, 1A4-11; XRP, 125ff.)       

Other Burial Data:
Original Burial
: The original resting place of Amosis is not known at this time, although Ikram and Dodson suggest that it was probably located in Dra Abu'l-Naga near the burials of his 17'th Dynasty ancestors. Based on comparisons of the handwriting and content of linen dockets and also on the stylistic similarities of their coffins, Reeves proposes that Amosis and his possible son, Siamun, were both originally buried in the same tomb. 
AmosisNewB.jpgRestorations/Reburials: A linen docket found on the wrappings of Amosis tell us that he was "osirified" on Year 8 3 prt 29 of Psusennes I. (See Linen Docket translation below.) He was presumably reburied on that date in the k3y of Inhapi, which Reeves identifies as WN A. From here, he was transferred to DB 320 at a time which Reeves sets as after Year 11 of Shoshenq I. (Source Bibliography: DRN, 251; MiAE, 321.)

Type A Linen Docket: "The Osiris king Nebpehtyre Amosis l. p. h." (Source Bibliography: DRN, 232; MR, 534.)

Linen Docket: Year 8 3 prt 29 of Psusennes I/'king' Pinudjem I/Menkheperre: "Yr 8 3 prt 29. The person (hm) of the dual king (nsw bity) and lord of the two lands Kheperkare-setepenamun l. p. h. Pinudjem-meryamun l. p. h. commanded to osirify (r rdit wsir) the Osiris king (nsw) Nebpehtyre l. p. h." (Source Bibliography: DRN, 236; GPI, doc. 50; MR, 534 [facs., transcr.]; RNT, 250 [12a]; TIP, 420 [40].)
Photo Credit: B&W photo: RM (Cairo, 1912,) pl. XI; upper color photo: flickr/alotofwords; lower color photo: gettyimages.
For high resolution photos of Amosis see  the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plates XI and XII

Source Abbreviation Key


Queen Ahmose-Nofretari (c. 1570-1546 B.C.)
Early 18'th Dynasty
: DB 320
Discovery Date
: 1881
Current Location: National Museum of Egyptian Civilization in Fustat.
Original Cairo Museum Registration #: CG61055

Biographical data: Ahmose Nofretari was the daughter of Ahotep I and Seqnenre-Taa II. Along with her son, Amenhotep I, she was worshiped as a patron of the tomb-builders at Deir el-Medina many years after her death.  


Details: The mummy identified as that of Ahmose-Nofretari was that of an old woman with well-worn teeth and balding scalp. A wig, consisting of plaits of human hair tied to strings, had been placed upon her head. Other plaits had been affixed to her own hair. 
    Ahmose-Nofretari's mummy had been damaged in antiquity by tomb robbers, and both her hands (as well as part of her right forearm) had been broken off and were missing. A gaping embalming incision, stuffed with linen,  appeared in her left side, and the impression of an embalming plate could still be seen in the dried resinous material which was used to cover the wound. The thieves had stolen this object, which had probably been made of gold. 
    Ahmose-Nofretari was found in her original, very large outermost coffin (CG 61003.) It had probably originally been decorated with gold foil, but this had been removed and the areas which it had once covered were painted over in yellow to imitate gold. This coffin is often accurately described as "colossal," and was large enough to also accommodate the  cartonnage coffin and mummy of Ramesses III, which were found within its cavernous interior along with Ahmose-Nofretari's mummy. (See photo of coffin at right from CCR, pl. III. To fully appreciate its enormous size, see the lithograph reproduced in TVK, p. 139, showing Egyptologist Ahmed Kamal sitting beside Ahmose-Nofretari's coffin,) Along with the coffin, four calcite canopic jars (CM JE 26255A-D) attributed to Ahmose-Nofretari were also found in DB 320. (Source Bibliography: CCR, 3f.; DRN, 200, 206, 212; EM, 90; EMs, 36, 37; MiAE, 91, 104, 208, 316, 322, ill. 412; MR, 535f.; RM, 13f.; XRA, 3B5-12; XRP, 127f.)

Other Burial Data:
Original Burial
: Unknown. Reeves speculates that her original tomb was AN B, the tomb which he also believes held the burial of Amenhotep I. 
Official Inspections: Year 16 of Ramesses IX'th
Restorations: Year 6 & Year 16 of Smendes
Reburials: Reeves argues that Ahmose-Nofretari and Amenhotep I were removed from AN B and cached in WN A (the k3y of Inhapi) before Year 10 of Siamun. He believes their transfer to DB 320 occurred sometime after Year 11 of Shoshenq I . (Source: DRN, 251.)
Photo Credit: RM (Cairo, 1912,) pl. VII. For high resolution photo of Ahmose-Nofretari see the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plate VII

Source Abbreviation Key


Lady Rai (c. 1570 B.C.)
Discovery Date
: 1881
Provenance: DB 320
Current Location: Cairo Museum CG61054

Biographical data: Lady Rai was supposedly a nurse of Ahmose-Nofretari (see above.)


Details: The mummy of Lady Rai was unwrapped by G. E. Smith on June 26'th, 1909. He distinguished her mummy as "the most perfect example of embalming that has come down to us from the time of the early 18'th Dynasty, or perhaps even of any period." He further characterized her as "the least unlovely" of the existing female mummies, and described her as a "slim, gracefully-built woman," measuring 1m 510mm in height, with small "childlike" hands. 
    Lady Rai's teeth show only slight wear. This, coupled with the fact that her scalp retained abundant amounts of what appears to be her own hair (and not a wig) indicates that she was relatively young when she died. Her hair is especially interesting because of the elaborate fashion in which it had been styled (see photo above.) Tightly plaited groups of braids were fashioned into long, thick masses which hang suspended from either side of the head and cover the upper chest region. Both of these masses of hair had been carefully wrapped in linen bandages. Smith only removed the wrappings from one of these thick tresses; the other was allowed to remain bandaged. Lady Rai had been wrapped in linen described by Smith as being of "moderately fine texture." Smith also records that inscriptions were found on the wrappings, but he only supplies data about one of these, which he must have found during the unwrapping, and which only gave Lady Rai's name. Smith reports that the mummy's face and body had been thinly coated with resin mixed with sand.
    He found an embalming incision in the traditional position on the left side of the body, and noted that this was covered with a fusiform embalming plate of the kind found on other 18'th Dynasty mummies. A single barrel-shaped carnelian bead was found on the right wrist--a small reminder of the jewelry which once had been placed upon the mummy. 
    PaheripedjetCoffinPlateXXIV.jpgThe intact coffin in which Lady Rai was found (see photo of coffin #CG 61022 at left) was of 19'th or 20'th Dynasty design and had originally belonged to a "servant in the Place of Truth" named Paheripedjet. At some point, this person was removed from the coffin and replaced with Lady Rai, whose own coffin (CG 61004) was employed for the burial of Ahmose-Inhapi. Paheripedjet's mummy was not identified among those found in DB 320, and its final resting place is not currently known with certainty. Reeves speculates that he may be one of the unidentified DB 320 male mummies. (Source Bibliography: CCR, 4ff., 34f.; DRN, 202, 208, 213-14, 232, 252, 255; EM, 90; EMs, 36; LNK, 36, chart IX; MiAE, 316, ill. 102; MR, 530; RM, 11-13.)

Other Burial Data:
Original Burial
: Unknown.
Reburials: Reeves thinks that Lady Rai was perhaps rewrapped and docketed within WN A, the tomb which he identifies as the k3y of Inhapi. She would have remained in this tomb with other mummies associated with Amosis I (see above) until their removal to DB 320, which Reeves dates to sometime after year 11 of Shoshenq I. (Source: DRN, 252.)

G. E. Smith provides the only report of an identifying linen docket on the wrappings of Lady Rai. He notes only that the inscription, which was translated by Daressy,  gives her name, and provides no further details. Smith also mentions several other inscriptions found on the mummy's bandages, but these were apparently never recorded or published. (Source: RM, 11.)
Photo Credit: photos of Lady Rai's mummy from RM, (Cairo, 1912) pl. VI; photo of coffin from CCR, pl. V. For high resolution photos of Lady Rai see  the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plates VI and VIII

Source Abbreviation Key

"Sitamun" (c. 1570 B. C.)
Early 18'th Dynasty
: DB 320
Discovery Date
: 1881
Current Location: Cairo Museum CG61060


Biographical data: Probably a daughter of Amosis I and Ahmose-Nofretiri (Source Bibliography: De, 23f., 56ff.; DRN, 252.)

Details: When examined, the "mummy" of Princess Sitamun turned out to be nothing more than a skull, a few remaining bones, and a reed mat, all combined to create the simulacrum of a mummy. One can only guess at the reasons for the manufacture of this curious artificial corpse. Perhaps Sitamun, who was a small child at the SitamunCoffinPlateXI.jpg time of her demise,  had died in such a way that little was left of her body. She may have been dismembered and partly devoured by wild animals or crocodiles. Since religious belief necessitated the continued existence of a mummified body in order to ensure existence in the Afterworld, a magical substitute body was created for her. Or  perhaps the original mummy of the little Princess had been so thoroughly damaged by ancient tomb robbers in their destructive search for valuables that little remained of it except her skull and a few bones, which the restorers piously collected for a decent reburial. Quite a lot of care was taken to provide her with a "body" and this may argue in favor of an earlier date for her "restoration" than that which applies to the other royal mummies found in the cache tombs, whose body parts (when found disarticulated by the restorers) were often hastily and carelessly thrown together, sometimes with parts from different bodies mixed together by mistake. (See, for example, the mummy of Ramesses VI.) 
    Sitamun's "mummy" was found in an undecorated 18’th Dynasty coffin (CG61009), which had been painted white (see photo at right.) A Type A Coffin Docket appeared on its lid. (See Coffin Docket Translation below.) (Source Bibliography: CCR, 10; DRN, 203, 208, 214, 232, 252; MiAE, 122, 316; MR, 538; RM, 19.)

Other Burial Data:
Original Burial
: Unknown. Probably Dra Abu'l-Naga. 
Restorations & Reburials: Reeves dates the restoration of Sitamun to the same approximate time as the "osirification" of Siamun, an event which occurred in Year 8 of Psusennes I 3prt 29. He places her artificial "mummy" in the k3y of Inhapi, and dates her transfer into DB 320 to sometime after year 11 of Shoshenq I . (Source: DRN, 252.)

Type A Coffin Docket Translation: "The king’s daughter Sitamun." (Source Bibliography: CCR, 10 [transcr.]; DRN, 232; MR, 538. )
Photo Credit: Photo of artificial mummy from the collection of  Ángel González y Arema, Theban Royal Mummy Project associate researcher. Photo of coffin from CCR, pl. XI.

Source Abbreviation Key

Prince Sipair (c. 1570 B.C.)SipaiCoffin.jpg (154377 bytes)
Early 18'th Dynasty
: DB 320
Discovery Date
: 1881
Current Location: Cairo Museum CG61064

Biographical data: Prince Amosis Sipair was probably a son of Amosis I, although he is sometimes viewed as the son of Amenhotep I. (Source Bibliography: DRN, 253.)

Details: The mummy of Ahmose-Sipair was unwrapped by G. E. Smith and A. R. Ferguson on September 9'th, 1905. Among the 21'st Dynasty re-wrappings were found numerous barley stalks, perhaps placed there as symbols of immortality. Not much remained of the original mummy except for a few bones and the distorted skin. The skin was light brown in color, and Smith reported that it was still soft and pliable. Smith discovered that the boy had a full set of deciduous teeth, indicating that he was about five or six years old when he died. Smith also noted that he appeared to have been circumcised, and stated that this was an unusual feature in boys of that age from the 18'th Dynasty, who were typically circumcised at puberty. 
    The small mummy of Ahmose-Sapair was found in a child’s coffin of 18’th Dynasty type (CG 61007), probably a replacement coffin, from which all the gilded surfaces and eye inlays had been removed. A Type A Coffin Docket appeared on its lid. (See Type A Coffin Docket Translation below.) (Source Bibliography: CCR, 9f; DRN, 200f., 206, 212, 232, 253; RM, 22ff; MiAE, 316; MR, 582 [5].)

Other Burial Data: 
Original Burial
: Probably Dra Abu’l Nega (Source Bibliography: DRN, 253; RNT, 40.)
Inspections and Reburials:
The Papyrus Abbot (3, 13) mentions an inspection of the tomb of Ahmose-Sapair in Year 16 of Ramesses IX'th, 3 3ht 18. At that time, the tomb was discovered to be undisturbed. Reeves argues that, at some unspecified time after this inspection, the child's mummy was moved into the k3y of Inhapi along with other early 18'th Dynasty burials. He dates Ahmose-Sipair's transfer into DB 320 to sometime after year 11 of Shoshenq I . (Source Bibliography: DRN, 253; TR, pl. 2.)

Type A Coffin Docket Translation: "(Ahmose-Si)pai(r) (Source Bibliography: CCR, 9f; DRN, 232.)
Photo Credit: RM (Cairo, 1912,) pl. XIX. For high resolution photo of Prince Sipair see the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plate XIX.   

Source Abbreviation Key

Ahmose-Meryetamen (c. 1551-1524 B.C.)
Early 18'th Dynasty
: DB 320
Discovery Date
: 1881
Current Location: Cairo Museum CG61052
Meryetamen.jpg (24219 bytes)


Details: The literature available concerning this mummy is somewhat difficult to interpret because it seems to incorporate a confusion of the mummy found in DB 320 (seen at left) with another similarly named female mummy found years later (in 1929) by Herbert Winlock in DB 358. The mummy in the photo at left was labeled with a Type A Linen Docket (see Linen Docket Translations below) which clearly identifies her as "Meryetamun." Reeves states that the location of this mummy's original place of burial remains unknown (DRN, 252.) Yet Reeves, in his list of Type B Dockets (DRN, 236 [#'s 24a-b-c, 25]) also includes linen dockets apparently found on the wrappings of another "Meryetamun," the one found in DB 358 by Winlock.  Reeves further states of the DB 320 mummy that X-rays of the pelvic area revealed the presence of beads, apparently remnants of some original funerary jewelry left by thieves (DRN, 206, #4.) He amends his brief description of this mummy by giving a reference to Harris and Weeks (XRP, 130) where a description of a mummy named "Ahmose-Meryet-Amon" is given which also describes the beads, and which further notes that "Ahmose-Meryet-Amon" had suffered in life from arthritis and scoliosis. Ikram and Dodson (in MiAE, 322) also list a "Meryetamun," and describe her as having suffered from arthritis and scoliosis. However, they confidently assert that this particular mummy had been found in TT 358 (DB 358). Yet, from the description they give, this is undoubtedly the mummy which Reeves attributes to DB 320. (It is interesting that Ikram and Dodson do not give a museum number for the mummy in their description, which would help clarify matters.) Apparently, some confusion exists on the part(s) of one or more of these researchers concerning the identity of the mummy they are describing. 
    The mummy depicted in the photograph above derives from DB 320. It was unwrapped on June 30'th, 1886, by Gaston Maspero, who believed its Linen Docket identification was incorrect. He tentatively dated the mummy to the Middle Kingdom, but G. E. Smith found nothing in the manner of the mummy's embalming which was inconsistent with early 18'th Dynasty mummification techniques. The embalming incision through which the internal organs had been removed had been made in the left flank, and the body cavity had been packed with linen pads soaked in resin. Most of the wrappings of the mummy had also been soaked with resin, a feature which Smith notes is common to mummies of the18'th Dynasty. 
    Smith observed that both of Ahmose-Meryetamun's ears had been pierced, and remarked on the poor state of her dentition. She was elderly at the time of her death, and may have died as the result of a fall backward which produced a head injury still visible on her mummified scalp. Other post-mortem damage was evident: Ahmose-Meryetamun's right arm had been pulled off and her left forearm had been separated.
    In addition to the Type A Linen Docket on the outer wrappings, two other inscriptions were found on the mummy. One piece of linen from the inner wrappings was inscribed with the words pr mwt ("The Temple of Mut,") indicating its place of origin. The inner shroud bore extracts from a copy of the Book of the Dead which had been inscribed for a h3ty-c named Mentuhotpe. Ahmose Meryetamun was found in an 18'th Dynasty style coffin (CG 61010) that had originally belonged to a steward named Seniu. Although essentially intact, the face had been adzed off, probably indicating that it had originally been gilded. (See photo of coffin from Ian Bolton's Egypt: Land of Eternity site.)
          AhmoseMeryetamunNew.jpgAs a matter of medical interest, the mummy of Ahmose-Meryetamun (from DB320) was one of the mummies given CT scans by the Horus Study, an investigation of atherosclerosis in Egyptian mummies conducted by Adel H. Allam, Gregory S. Thomas, et al. (See photo at right, showing Ahmose-Meryetamun ready for scanning.) The results of the CT scans (published in Science Daily, 5/17/11) showed that she suffered from coronary artery disease and provides the earliest example of this condition yet diagnosed. (Source Bibliography: CCR, 11f.; DRN, 200, 206, 214, 232, 236, 252; MiAE, 322; MR, 539f.; RM, 6ff.; XRA, 3C11-3D6; XRP, 130.)

Other Burial Data:
Original Burial
: Reeves believes that the DB 320 Meryetamun was probably originally buried in the Deir el-Bahri region. Her employment of the steward Seniu's coffin (cf. above) seems to imply that her tomb had originally been close to his. Reeves points out that Lansing's 1918-19 discovery of a shabti inscribed for Seniu in Dier el-Bahri seems to indicate that this was the location of the steward's burial. (Sources: BMMA, Egyptian Expedition 1918-20, 6, fig. 2; DRN, 252f.; SoE, vol. II, 59, fig. 29.

Restorations and Reburials: Reeve's dates the rewrapping of the DB 320 Meryetamun to Years 7-8 of Psusennes I. He contends that she was also cached at this time in the k3y of Inhapi. Reeves dates her removal from Inhapi's tomb and her placement in DB 320 to sometime after Year 11 of Shoshenq I  (Source: DRN, 252.

Linen Docket Translations: 
i) Type A Linen Docket (found on mummy): "The king's daughter and king's sister Meryetamun, may she live!" (Sources: DRN, 232; MR, 539 [facs.].)

Photo Credit:
RM (Cairo, 1912,) pl. IV. For high resolution photo of Ahmose-Meryetamen see  the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plate IV (showing Ahmose-Meryetamen on left.) 

Source Abbreviation Key